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The Sweating System – The Employer’s Point of View

(see http://www.mythweaver.co.uk/stitchery/snippets/stitch-stitch-stitch-in-poverty-hunger-and-dirt/  for details of the conference at which this talk was presented)

This talk deals with some of the problems and the opportunities of an employer in the London Clothing Trade in the later 19th century.

Notes from a talk by Madelaine Ginsburg.

‘The Sweater’ In the Clothing Trade is regarded as:

  1. One who grinds the face of the poor
  2. One without skills or capital who makes a living out of others
  3. A middle man

There is a great deal of prejudice against the employers of the past.

Many investigations interviewed employees but not their employer.  However, they were people.  Few personal papers are in existence, and no account books have been kept.

All tailors had first to be apprentices, then journeymen, before being masters.  As soon as they employed others they were suspect as oppressors, especially if they employed outworkers.

There were many outworkers making garments for slopshops or showshops (cheap clothes).  Masters could not afford space for workers as accommodation prices went up.  Outworkers increased as the century went on, supplemented by women workers.

Tailoring unions from 1880s, but the trade not easy to unionise.

Men did not welcome women in Trade Unions, and women did not take to Unions.

Many outworkers were Jewish immigrants barred from Unions.  Many employers discharged Union members.

Jews hoped to be employers (even when young) so tended not to join Unions.

The late 19th century saw increased demand through increased population and rising standards of living.  Therefore there was more work.  White collar workers were growing in number and needed smarter clothes.  Production rose 500% between 1861 and 1911.  Prices dropped.

Many garments were exported across the British Empire.

There was great demand for uniforms (non-seasonable work) – much of these made with female outworker labour.

The Sewing machine speeded work.  By 1870, ½ million machines in use in tailoring trade.  These could be £7 to £8 by 1888, with several months to pay.

Cutting machines came in in the 1890s.

The Industry was labour intensive and took up a lot of room.  People were cheaper than new machines, and employers were slow to bring in machines for this reason.

Transport was expensive, as was travel for workers.  Overcrowding of areas where tailoring was principle industry – i.e. East of London and Leeds (but never as bad as London).

Various factory acts during the 2nd half of the 19th century were designed to better the lot of employees.

Many employees were paid piece work and resented the restrictions of shorter hours.

Various waves of immigrants from Europe formed the source of the workers in the clothing trade – mostly Jews.

The peak was 1881-2

By 1891 restrictions on immigrants were in progress.  Subsequent rise of anti-Semitism as Jews rose up through the social classes.

Jews were a close knit community.  They set up their own systems of welfare and assistance.

Most employers were Jews, employing Jews.  The Garment Trade was dominated by them by the end of the century.

In men’s tailoring the non-Jewish workers were gradually pushed out.  Any hand, who could save a £1 as capital, could rise to be an employer and a sweater.

Madelaine Ginsburg was assistant keeper (dress) at the Victoria and Albert Museum.  Mrs Ginsburg is the author of many articles on the clothing trade, and her books include ‘Victorian Dress in Photographs’, An Introduction to Fashion Plates’ and (with Prudence Glyn) ‘In Fashion.’  She also contributed to the V&A’s publication ‘Four Hundred Years of Fashion’, edited by Natalie Rothstein.

Fashion Slaves

(see http://www.mythweaver.co.uk/stitchery/snippets/stitch-stitch-stitch-in-poverty-hunger-and-dirt/  for details of the conference at which this talk was presented)

The title inspired by Redgrave’s paintings, this talk is about the dresses once they have been made and delivered – the story is not finished then, there was upkeep and maintenance to be done – and what it was like to be a ladies maid.

Notes from a talk by Christina Walkley

Both the lady and the dressmaker were slaves of fashion – as was the lady’s maid who had to care for the clothes.

Even most extravagant lady expected her money’s worth.  Most dresses were refreshed, re-trimmed and often restyled.  These tasks were given to the lady’s maid.

Masters and Mistresses were dependent on servants.  Daily services included:

Draining bath, setting out underclothes, putting on stockings, doing hair, buttoning gloves, putting items in bags, etc.  (Almost like dressing a child.)

Ladies maids also dusted china, washed fine linens, cared for dogs, and did millinery and dressmaking.  They needed to be good organisers, skilled needlewomen, tactful, and sympathetic.

Ladies had a duty to be smart lest they earn the contempt of their maids.

Most ladies maids would ultimately receive their mistresses clothes as perks.

Maids had better surroundings and more variety in their tasks than dressmakers.  There were no fixed standards for wages.

A good ladies maid could be asked to do all sorts of tasks if she were the only person to be trusted.

Mistress and maid could develop a good relationship, even if the work for the maid was long and hard.  Some maids gave lifelong service, but the work demanded skill, concentration and service.  They did not do coarse work, but did clean shoes, care for lace and stockings.

Stockings and shoes needed special care.

A Lady was judged by the state of her gloves.  If rich, gloves would be thrown away when dirty, but their cleaning was laborious and involved several processes.

Cleaning hats and bonnets was also difficult to handle.  They had to be taken apart and then cleaned.  (A good opportunity to restyle.)

Care of lace was a special task.  A bottle was covered in white linen and the lace was tacked to it.  This was soaked overnight, then boiled.  The lace was dried on the bottle without rinsing.

Stain removal was another skill of the maid.

Christina Walkley was Assistant Keeper at Platt Hall from 1971 until 1972, and then Keeper until 1977.  Ms Walkely has worked since then as a freelance lecturer and writer.  She has written ‘Crinolines and Crimping Irons’ and ‘The Ghost in the Looking Glass.’  Due to be published in March (the year of the conference) was ‘The Way to Wear ‘em: 150 years of Punch Fashion.’

Clothes and Disease 1830- 1889

(see http://www.mythweaver.co.uk/stitchery/snippets/stitch-stitch-stitch-in-poverty-hunger-and-dirt/  for details of the conference at which this talk was presented)

A detailed look at how disease was spread through clothing, old and new, to all strata of society.

Notes from a talk by Lou Taylor.

Following 1840’s ‘Song of the Shirt’ there was a widely held belief that disease was spread through clothes.  Medical research was not widespread.  Prevalent diseases: Typhoid, Diphtheria, Diarrhoea,  Cholera, Whooping cough etc.  No-one could pinpoint contagion.

Robert Gough and Louis Pasteur introduced idea of bacteria.

Writing of the period tells us what people thought.

Henry Mayhew – Evening Chronicle, 1849 Bermandsey Tour (large % of population working class) guided by doctor, where a Barber had Scarlett Fever, then Typhus.  Child died of Cholera, wife now ill of it.  Workshop was dining room with seepage from neighbour’s privy soaking through wall.  Drinking water drawn from river.

1849 (Mayhew)  Tailor dying of consumption but his clothes and bedding pawned.  Covered with a coat, newly made, which was to go to shop the next day.

C. Kingsley 1848. Cheap, nasty clothes. When clothes pawned workers used the clothes they made to cover them at night.  Children with Cholera covered with a half-finished riding habit.

Therefore: new clothes could spread disease.

1872 John Thompson’s London features 2nd hand clothes shops and pawn shops.  Both shops could receive diseased clothes and pass them on.

Where living conditions were poor, washing almost impossible.

Mayhew, 1849.  Sheets been on beds nearly 3 months.  No clean shirt this month.  Could not afford to pay for washing.  Scarce a house without yellow linen hanging out to dry over water (stained with sulphur).

Germs could live in clothes or toys for several years.  Dead child’s toys could pass on scarlet fever.

In 17th century the plague was spread by infection in bales of cloth, especially silk.

In 1665 regulations re fumigating bedding were announced.

Pepys kept a new wig several months before wearing it because of plague.

1777 Dr Mead.  Disease could be spread through dirt in clothes, food etc.

By early 19th century cholera came to England from India.  Spread across Europe – Novogorod 1829, Poland 1831, Hamburg 1831.  College of Physicians decreed quarantine for boats carrying flax.

Oct 1831 Cholera in Sunderland.  2nd epidemic 1840s (coupled with Typhus – brought in by starving Irish settlers)

(Good book – Whimsloe: The Sources and Modes of Infection.)

Many 19th century people believed that Cholera was spread through the air.  ‘Miasma.’

Slums bred diseases, but upper class also died (Prince Albert!)  Therefore people began to think of drains.  By mid-19th century preventative measures being taken.  Limewashing and disinfection of drains.

However, the real causes of disease not known.

Lou Taylor was Senior Lecturer in Dress and Textile History at Brighton Polytechnic.  Chairman of the Textile Society and author of ‘Mourning Dress, Costume and Social History

The Beaders

(see http://www.mythweaver.co.uk/stitchery/snippets/stitch-stitch-stitch-in-poverty-hunger-and-dirt/  for details of the conference at which this talk was presented)

An updating of a short paper read at the first Costume Society Symposium, London, April 19th.

Notes from a talk by Joan Edwards.

Two ways of Beading:

  1. Sewn on with needle (bead embroidery)
    1. Worked before making up

    Formed into ornaments and then sewn on.

    1. Added after making up.

    Bead embroidery (1) is very skilled.  Bead work (2) is unskilled.

    1904 Berlin exhibition to show exploitation of home workers.  Taken up by London clergyman who made up his own exhibition in Church Hall.

    1906 another German exhibition featuring evidence gathered.  Many workers hesitant to send examples for exhibition for fear of losing jobs.

    Women’s Industrial Council received report on embroidery as a home work (Included beaders and artificial flowers).  Some cases of middlewomen, who finds workers and then pays them.  Worker reluctant to give evidence.  14-15 hours a day needed for a living wage – i.e. 1shilling 1 ½ average.  The posture needed for work caused bad eyesight and nerves.

    2 May 1906  Daily news Sweated Industry exhibition.  Showing workers in action.  30,000 visitors by 29th May at 1 shilling entry each.

    Fashion fluctuation makes trade varying.  Low wages or no wages.  Beading trying on eyes.

    Women’s Industrial Council 1907 published a hardback on ‘Sweating.’

    1907 Sweated Industries exhibition in Oxford opened by Viscount Milner.

    1913 Glasgow.  Scottish Council for Women’s Trade – exhibition on ‘Sweating’ entitled ‘The Song of the Shirt.’

    Beaders persuaded to take part, nameless, on stand 10.  Number 19 worked beading on shoes – was paid 6 shillings a week, worked 12 hours per day, had to provide her own needles.  Number 20 earned 5 shillings per week making beaded ornaments, had to fetch work (3 hours walking) – cut out buckram, bind it, sew on beads.  Work bad for eyes.

    Exploitation still exists.  Bengali workers in London, Brick Lane.

    Joan Edwards had just published the sixth of her small books on the history of Embroidery (The Bead Embroidered Dress) and was writing a biography of Dorothy Benson who worked for forty years in the Embroidery Department of the Singer Sewing Machine Company.

Shirtmaking

(see http://www.mythweaver.co.uk/stitchery/snippets/stitch-stitch-stitch-in-poverty-hunger-and-dirt/  for details of the conference at which this talk was presented)

Sweated labour in the shirt trade was one of the first areas in which it caught public attention; in the early 1840s the celebrated court case Moses V the Widow Bidell concerned shirtmaking and so, of course, did Hood’s ‘Song of the Shirt.’  This talk traces the trade’s development through the 19th century.

Notes from a talk by Sarah Levitt.

1843: The Song of the Shirt – best known poem of the 19th Century – became a national catch phrase and a song.

1844 A play opened with the ‘Song’ as a prologue.  It drew the public’s attention to the plight of needlewomen.

(Slide) Redgraves ‘Seamstress’ 1846.  (see: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O1250737/the-poor-seamstress-watercolour-drawing-redgrave-richard-cb/) One of several picture on the same theme – also Watts and Millais

Seamstresses feature in novels of the 19th century.  Romantic feeling about these girls due to ‘there but for the grace of God go I.’   Distressed gentlewomen, or poor middle class, officers and clergymen’s daughters.

Distressed gentlewomen’s association set out to help.  The alternative to sweated labour was often prostitution.

Clothes making was one of the major industries of Britain between 1826 and 1914.

The standard of living gradually rose all round – any amelioration of conditions must be set against the gradual rise all round.

Clothing trade seasonal and utilised vast hordes of unemployed – i.e. Irish, Italian, and Jewish immigrants.

Middleman and outworkers system.

18th Century slop shops sold cotton and linen ready made shirts etc.  These people became the outfitters of the 19th century and their workers became the sweated labourers as they poached into the tailorer’s trade.

1840s – Tailors strike.

1843 – Poem by Hood.

1844 – Children and Young persons’ act.

1842 – 5,000 women employed in shirt making 4/6 per dozen, at 2 per day

1849 –  Henry Mayhew gives more info: ‘The worst work to be had.’  6d per shirt if good, 2d for bad ones.  Wages going down, outworkers.

Early 19th Century shirts like smocks – no curves, in pieces.  Low shoulder line, gathered sleeve, gusset under arm.  Re-enforced front.  Tunic shirts.

Plain sewing was part of every girl’s education.  Many miniature garments survive.  Best shorts have tucked fronts and little gussets at top of side slits – very finely stitched.

1840s/50s new design in shirts.  Raglan sleeves and better shaped.  Shirt fronts were worn under waistcoats and jackets with false cuffs – no body to the shirt.  A vast variety of shirts, shirt fronts, collars and cuffs – 97 types of shirt, 18 versions of flannel shirts, at least 12 different fronts.  Collars and cuffs could be reversible.  Paper, celluloid and rubber collar and cuffs available.

Flannel shirts very popular.  Striped cotton shorts known as regatta shirts made for 10d per dozen.

Collar and cuff making were a separate trade.

1915 1/5, 4/9, 2/6 per dozen machine made shirts.

London a centre for shirt making, but also Manchester, Glasgow, Taunton, Leeds etc.

By the end of the 19th century Ireland was an important centre for shirt making in factories.  Firms came from Glasgow, London, and Manchester to set up factories.

1855 – sewing machines installed for shirt making.

By 1858 200 machines using 200 yards of cotton per day.

Sewing machines expanded the sweating system.  Finishing was done by outworkers at home.

It was not possible to unionise outworkers.  Could not band together to help themselves.

Sweated industries exhibition 1906.

1909 Trade Boards Act tried to protect these workers.

Army, post office and government departments acted as exploiters, setting minimum wages (only just abolished).

Sarah Levitt was Assistant Curator at the City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery.  Previously Assistant Keeper at Platt Hall, Miss Levitt has an MA in The History of Dress from the Courtauld Institute of Art.  Her interest in shirt making stems from research for her book published the month of the conference, Victorians Unbuttoned: Registered Designs for Clothes, their Makers and Wearers.